Dentistry is a branch of medicine that deals with teeth and their surrounding structures with their attendant problems. It is necessary that all health workers know about some common diseases of the teeth so as to be able to refer such cases to the dentist.
STRUCTURE OF THE TOOTH
- Blood vessels
- Nerves to pulp
Tooth three longitudinal parts
- The crown: Visible part of the tooth in the mouth
- The neck:- Junction of the crown and the root
- The root:- Invisible part of the tooth in the mouth
The enamel is the part of the tooth that we brush. It is lifeless and insensitive. The dentine lies under the enamel.
The pulp is the innermost layer. It is made up of blood vessels and nerve cells.
Four different types of teeth in man
Incisor-used for cutting
Canine – used for tearing
Premolar-used for chewing and grinding
Molar-used for chewing and grinding
There are thirty-two teeth in a man. The dental formulas in man is as follow
- 1 =. ct pm – Ž. m =
COMMON DENTAL PROBLEMS
- Dental plaque and dental calculus
- Dental caries
- Gum diseases (gingivitis)
- Mouth odor
DENTAL PLAQUE AND DENTAL CALCULUS
- In the present day, plaque is regarded as all visible soft deposits or firmly adherent bacterial masses on the teeth.
The formation of dental plaque is divided into two stages formation of an initial non-bacterial plague matrix. The proliferation of micro-organisms within the plaque matrix. The initial plaque matrix consists of an accumulation of protein and carbohydrates partly endogenous and partly exogenous
Endogenous from saliva and product of tissue metabolism and catabolism and exogenously derived from the diet. This acts as a substrate for a higher concentration of micro-organisms than are found generally in other areas of the oral cavity It should be noted that micro-organisms form about seventy percent of the bulk of the plaque
This is a hard deposit formed by the mineralization of plaque. It consists of organic and inorganic fractions. The treatment for dental plaque and calculus is scaling land pushing.
SCALING AND POLISHING
This is a dental procedure that removes plaque and tartars around a healthy gum and polishes the teeth to prevent plaque buildup. The procedure can be done manually or with a machine. It is painless, bloodless, and cheap. It is recommended for every six months or once a year to see the dentist.
Dental caries is the development of a cavity in a tooth it is a very common dental problem that occurs in any age group. Three factors combine to cause its development in the teeth.
- The constant presence of germs in the mouth cavity
- Protracted contact of food remnant with the teeth
- Inherent susceptibility of the teeth to dental decay
The interaction of germs with food remnants in the mouth produces acid which dissolves calcium content in the enamel of the teeth. The food remnant that is implicated is sugar and refined food. It is, therefore, necessary to consult the dentist who will determine the type of treatment needed.
The treatment is usually filling or extraction depending on the extent of the cavity. The best way to prevent tooth decay is to brush with fluoride toothpaste and drink fluoridated water.
- Fluoride is the best defense against tooth decay
- Fluoride makes the teeth more resistant to decay
- It repairs tiny areas of decay before they become big caries.
- Make germs in the mouth less able to cause decay. Filling rather than extraction is done at this stage.
FILLING AND FILLING MATERIALS
The filling is the insertion of filling materials into the cavity to restore the original contour of the tooth attacked by dental caries There are different types of filling materials in dental use they are:
- Zinc phosphate
Zinc phosphate (Oxyphosphate) cement: This type is widely used in dentistry both as a protective pas u in deep cavities, Its disadvantage is that it causes irritation when placed in the base of deep cavities.
Amalgam: most widely used in a dentist
- Eugenol + Zinc oxide
Eugenol + Zinc oxide: least injurious or all filling material to the dental pulp. It causes no irritation. It can exert a palliative and sedative effect on mildly damaged pulp. Filling materials serve as a bacteriostatic agent. It improves the marginal seal of certain restorative materials by preventing microbes and saliva along with the tooth and restoration of deleterious constituents of material into the dentine and pulp.
This is a surgical procedure of removing the tooth from the bone socket with a special instruments extraction or pulling of the tooth is one of the primary roles of a dentist. When a tooth has a hole due to dental caries for a long time and is left untreated the hole becomes bigger and deeper. Soon the hole affects a larger portion of the tooth. The only available option is to remove the tooth by ext action.
It is advised very strongly that when e notices pain on taking surgery food and or pain on drinking old or hot water, hen one must report to the dental clinic as this is a sign of tooth decay or caries.
RULES (PRECAUTIONS) AFTER TOOTH EXTRACTION
keep swallowing saliva on the day of extraction and do not spite out.
- Do not rinse your mouth or brush so as not to disturb the site of extraction with the tongue.
- Avoid hot meals, only cold and soft food is recommended.
- Rest is of vital importance after extraction. However one can still go to work after extraction but it depends on the type of work.
Use your drugs as prescribed by the dentist, from the next day rinse your mouth with warm water and salt six times a day for the next five days.
- GUM DISEASES
A normal healthy gum is pink In color, firm, and does not bleed on brushing. If the gum becomes red, swollen, puffy, and bleeds occasionally on brushing, it has a disease. When this painless disease that is destroying is left untreated, the tooth becomes loose and mobile. Gum disease is preventable and because it is painless, many patients usually do not visit the dentist.
The commonest gum disease is gingivitis. This is the inflammation of the gingival tissue. It may occur in acute, subarcuate, and chronic forms. The acute and subarcuate forms are not common and rarely occur in a person who is in robust health. The chronic form is relatively common, especially in older children. What causes gingivitis may be divided into local and systemic factors,
- Food impaction
- Chemical or drug application
- Tooth malposition
- Nutritional disorders
- Drug action
The best bet is to refer the patient to the dentist.
Dentistry Eugenol + Zinc oxide
Dental zinc oxide is dentistry’s go-to for preventing tooth decay and plaque formation. Zinc oxide is also great at protecting against germs and airborne bacteria, plus it seals and strengthens teeth so you can help your mouth stay healthy all the way through your life.
Dentistry with eugenol and zinc oxide
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Eugenol is an active ingredient in dental medicine. It is used as an anti-inflammatory, to soften tissue, and as a styptic to draw blood from the gums. Zinc oxide is a mineral that is found in all living things and boosts tooth enamel.