The human ear is divided into three parts, namely the outer, middle, and inner ear. The outer ear consists of the pinna and the external auditory meatus.
Vital Parts Of the Human Body
- Tensortympanic Utriculus
- Semicircular Canals
- Ampulla Auditory nerve
- Tympanic Eustachian
- Fenestra ovalis
- External tubers pharynx (oval window) auditory meats
- Fenestra rotunda muscle (Round window)
- The mammalian ear structure
The middle ear is made up of the eardrum also called the Ayr. panum, and a chain of three bones connected and called the ossicles. These three ossicles are the malleus, incus, and stapes. They are also called the hammer, anvil, and stirrup.
The bones a are at a right angle to each other ciliano
The middle ear is connected to the pharynx by the eustachian tube. Through this connection, the pressure in the middle ear is equalized with that of the atmosphere.
The inner ear is made up of two very important structures – three-loop canals called the semicircular canal with utriculus and sacculus, and a snail shell-shaped canal called the Cochlea.
These structures are called the membranous labyrinth and are surrounded by a fluid called perilymph. The semi-circular canals and cochlea have their inside filled with another fluid called the endolymph
MECHANISM OF HEARING
A sound wave is directed into the ear by the pinna. As the vibrating sound hit the tympanic membrane there is further vibration. This is then transmitted to the ossicle.
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The ossicles act as a lever and magnify the sound wave at the end of the stapes. The stapes vibrate against the oral window, and thus set up a vibration in the perilymph. This then passes to the cochlea.
The vibration is therefore passed to the endolymph and from here to the organ of Corti. From the organ of the Corti, nervous impulses are passed through the auditory nerve to the brain.
The brain interprets it and sends it back to the ear and hearing is affected.
FUNCTIONS OF THE EAR
- Hearing as already discussed.
- Balance: The semicircular canals are sensitive to changes in the direction of movement.
The sacculus and utriculus are sensitive to changes in the position of the head.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF EAR DISEASE
CAUSES OF EARACHE
There are Otogenic and non-otogenic Causes: Otogenic causes are as follows:
- Otitis Media.
- Eustachian Tube Obstruction.
- Non-Otogeni Causes:
- Non-Otogeni Causes:
- AURIS UTempora-Mandibular Joint (TMJ)
- Carious Molar Tooth
- Cancer of the Tongue.
This is a thick oily fluid in the ear. It may be soft or hard. Soft wax was removed with a probe covered by cotton wool (cotton board). Hard wax is removed using a 10% solution of soap in water.
FOREIGN BODY IN THE EAR
Except for organic foreign bodies, all other foreign bodies are removed by syringing. An organic foreign body such as peanut during syringing makes it difficult for it to come out.
SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA
This may be acute or chronic. In this condition, the large ai containing space of the ear lined with mucous membrane i inflamed.
- May result from secondary disease of the nasopharynx.
- Inflamed adenoid.
- Mucopus from a sinus.
The predisposing factor especially in children is measles.
The organisms commonly implicated are staphylococcus, streptococcus and pneumococcus.
- Malaria and fever in the early stage.
- Suppurative discharge. (d) Deafness when chronic,
Ear swab for microscopy, culture, and sensitivity.
- Antibiotics based on the laboratory report.
- Aural toilet.
If fails to resolve, then the patient is referred to the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) department for expert management.
In the ENT department, further treatment include myringotomy and Grommet insertion.
- Failure to resolve.
- Rapid recurrence after treatment
- Deafness which may be temporary or permanent.
- Spread to other structures such as Mastoid, Facial Nerve, Sinus and the Cranium.
THE HUMAN SKELETON
- Nose cavity
- Eye socket
- Mandible (lower jaw)
- Cervical (upper Jaw) (vertebrae)
- Pectoral or Cervical shoulder (collar-bone) girdle
- Clavicle (shoulder-ribs blade) Humerus
- Carpals or hip (wrist) girdle
- Phalanges (hand bones) (finger Bones)
- Patella (kneecap)
- Tarsals (ankle)
- It is
- Phalanges (toe bones)
- Metatarsal (foot bones)
Different types of vertebrae
- Cervical Vertebrae:- These are the seven bones of the neck.
- Thoracic Vertebrae:- These are the twelve bones of the thorax Or chest.
The ribs are articulated to them, the back and shoulder
- Lumbar Vertebrae:- These are the five bones of the upper
- Sacrae Vertebrae:- These are the five bones of the lower abdomen.
- Caudal Vertebrae:- These are the four bones of the tail.
They give support to the tail as well as muscle attachment. The ribs are rod-like semi-circular bones that connect the thoracic
There are twelve ribs in man.
- Appendicular skeleton:- This consists of the limbs and limb girdles
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETON
- It protects the soft tissues and organs.
- The skeleton provides a framework from which internal organs are suspended.
- It provides a point of attachment to muscles.
- It gives the body its shape and form.
- The bones of the skeleton manufacture blood cells.
- The movement of some parts of the skeleton especially the rib And some muscles facilitate respiration