|Growth And Development Afterbirth|
Growth is a physical change due to an increase in size or number of the cells In-utero there are various stages of growth depending on the trimester
- First trimester – embryogenesis.
- Second trimester-organogenesis.
- Third trimester-rapid growth of cells.
After birth, there are four periods of maximum growth
- There is rapid growth during infancy especially between one and two years which decelerates gradually until the age of four years. The decrease may be due to the baby not feeding well. Most babies oftentimes refuse ſeed despite the fact that they are not sick.
- After this period there is slow but uniform growth until puberty.
- There is rapid growth at puberty.
- There is deceleration after puberty till maturation.
Development is the change’s inability to function. Maturation of organs is necessary for development.
FACTORS INFLUENCING GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
- Genetic factor:-Growth and development are determined by the interplay of hereditary genes. However, it has been shown that this can be modified by environmental factors.
- Environment:- The environment in which the child lives both before birth, during birth, and after birth determines to a large extent
The growth and development of the child.
1. Prenatal (Before birth):-
(a) Material infections during pregnancy
(b) Material habits like drinking and smoking.
(c) Maternal nutrition.
Natal (During birth):-
(a) Prolonged labor with asphyxia.
(b) Birth injury
(a) Socio-economic status of parents:
(b) Quality of parental care;
(c) Family size;
(d) Birth interval and birth order;
(e) Maternal deprivation syndrome;
(1) Congenital abnormality.
ASSESSMENT OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
The growth and development is assessed using the
Birth weight, height, head circumference, fontanelle and
The average birth weight for males is 3.28kg while that of females is 3.25 kg. Birth weight ranges from 2.5 kg to 4.6 kg. In the first six months of life, the baby gains 20g per day and gains 15g per day in the second six months. From the above, it implies that the birth weight doubles at the end of six months after birth and triple at the end of one year.
At birth, the length of the baby ranges from 45 cm to 55 cm. The study has shown that baby gains:
- 25 cm at the end of the first year of life.
- 12 cm at the end of the second year of life.
- 6 cm at the end of the third year of life.
- 6 cm at the end of the fourth year of life.
After this, they gain 6 cm every six years, From the foregoing, it means that the birth height double at the end of the fourth year and triple at the end of the thirteenth year.
|Growth And Development After birth|
There are two frontanelles, the anterior and posterior frontanelle. Both closes within a certain age; the posterior closing before the anterior.
- Posterior fontanelle closes within four months.
- Anterior fontanelle closes within eighteen months.
Failure of the fontanelles to close may be due to either of the following conditions:
(d) Cranio-fascial dystosis;
(e) Cranio tabes.
There are two types of teeth, the milk teeth also called the deciduous teeth which are smooth, and the permanent teeth which are serrated.
Eruption Age in Months Shedding Age in Years
- Lower Upper
- Central incisor
- Laternal incissor
- 15 molar
- 2nd molar
Eruption Age in Years
1st molar 6-7
Central incissor 6-7
Laternal incissor 7-8
2nd molar 17-22
3rd molar 12-13
This takes into consideration the child’s development in items of gross motor activity, fine motor activity, language, and social interactions.
- Gross motor activity:-
- Neck control = 3h2
- Sit = 742 to 8/2
- Stand = 92
- Walk= 10 to 12/12
- Follow Object = 6/2
- 6 Years
- 7 Years
(b) Hoid object and transfer to another hand = 312
(c) Drop object in a cup =2
(d) can draw objects
- 3 Years
- A 4 Years
- O 5 Years
- Turn to voice =412
- Mama and Dada =6512
- Form two words = 16/019/12
- Point to part of the body when asked =1 = 18/₂2 10 24/12
- Give the first name =24,2 to 25112
(a) Recognise face of mother or maid = = 1152
(b) Passive smile = 452
(c) Spontaneous smile =212
(d) Play with mother or maid = 12
(e) Cry at visitors = 6=8/12
(1) play a ball = 10/12
(g) Drink from cup = 1942
(h) Start using spoon =18/42
(i) Can wash hand =1842 to 20/12
(j) Separate from mother without cry = 2 years
(k) Can dress himself = 212 to 3 years
(1) Can button-up = 212 to 4 years.
The age for each activity is not rigid but varies from child to child. It has been proved with a relative degree of certainty that social- the economic status of parents plays a vital role in a child’s developmental milestone especially in language and social interaction. Some children can perform the activities stated above before the time frame while others will not be able to perform the activities months after the expected month.