Tumors In Children And Treatment

Tumors In Children And Treatmeheant
Tumors In Children And Treatment

TUMOR: are either benign or malignant. Burkitt’s Lymphoma is very sensitive to chemotherapy


1. Thyroglossal cyst:- Occur due to persistence of the thyroglossal duct. It is common in the neck region where it is centrally placed. The cyst moves with the protrusion of the tongue.

2. Cystic hygroma:- It can grow to a large size. It occurs due to the sequestration of lymphatic channels of the head and neck.

3. Sternomastoid tumor:- Occur in the sternomastoid muscle. The origin is not known but some believe it is caused by trauma and birth injuries. It is the commonest cause of torticollis. In fact, the head is tilted towards the tumor while the face is turned away from it.

4. Sacrococcygeal tumor:- This is an embryonic tumor that occurs at the terminal area of the spine.


1. Leukaemia;

2. Lymphoma;

3. Nephroblastoma;

4. Neuroblastoma;

5. Retinoblastoma.

Leukemia is a malignant tumor of hematopoietic cells (blood cells). It is a disorderly and purposeless proliferation of blood cells. It occurs due to genetic and environmental factors, it is the acute lymphocytic variety that affects children. Lymphoma is a malignant tumor of lymphoid tissue. It is generally progressive and painless. The Burkitts lymphoma variety affects children. It is commonly found in the tropics and malaria-endemic areas and it is the fastest-growing tumor. The common sites are the jaw, the abdomen, and the central nervous system. 


This is a tumor of the retina of the eye. It usually occurs before three years and may be bilateral in about 30% of cases. The tumor is inherited by Autosomal dominance. Retinoblastoma arises from the posterior aspect of the retina and may extend forward to the vitreous humor and extra-ocularly into the orbit, optic nerve, and choroid layer.


1. Big eye (cat-like eye);

2. Poor vision;

3. Pain in the later stage;

4. Squint in the affected eye.

STAGING: There are four stages. These are:

1. Tumour in the retina:

II. Tumour in eyeball;

III. Regional extraocular extension to the orbit and optic nerve,

IV. Distant metastasis.


1. Send the patient to an ophthalmologist for examination under anesthesia and final diagnosis

2. X-ray of the skull and orbit.

3. Skeletal survey.


  • STAGE =Enucleation
  • STAGE 1 =Enucleation and Chemotherapy with
  • vincristine and
  • cyclophosphamide
  • STAGE III =Enucleation+Chemotherapy+Radiotheray
  • STAGE IV =Chemotherapy+Enucleation+Radiotheray


  • STAGE I & II is good
  • STAGE III & IV is poor

What is Nephrobltoma?

NEPHROBLATOMA also called WILM’S tumor is a tumor of the kidney affecting children with a mean age of three years. NEUROBLASTOMA is a tumor of nervous tissue and occurs most commonly along the sympathetic chain Ninety percent of cases would have occurred by the age of ten years. The tumor may be familial and it is not asserted with any congenital abnormality.

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